Birth: Rosa Parks was born in Tuskegee, Alabama on February 4, 1913
Parents: Her parents are James and Leona McCauley
Education: She went to King at Anderson
Rosa Parks was born in Tuskegee, Alabama on February 4, 1913(Encyclopedia of World). Roses mother was a schoolteacher and her father was a carpenter. When Rosa was old enough to go to school she went to Montgomery Industrial School for girls. At the age of fifteen Rosa graduated from All African American Booker T. Washington High School in 1928. Rosa also attended Alabama State College for a short time.
At the age of nineteen Rosa married a man named Raymond Parks who at that time was a barber. Rosa and her husband were both involved in various civil rights causes, such as getting voting rights for blacks. Parks husband died in 1977. A few years later, her mother and brother died as well. Rosa has suffered from heart problems, but continues to be active, working with NAACP and other civil-rights groups. Rosa Parks has been given many awards and honors in recognition of work ( Black Americans).
Rosa Parks was very influential in all aspects of the Civil Rights movement, but her biggest contribution was the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Like most other people she depended on the buses to get to work. In Montgomery, the first ten seats of every bus were reserved for white passengers, and the blacks could not sit in them, ever, even if there was no white person on the bus at the time. The back seats on the bus were for the blacks and if there are no white seats left and the whites needed a seat the blacks were forced to get up and stand. Some of the bus drivers had a practice; they would make the blacks pay at the front and then he would make them get off the bus and get on at the back of the bus. Some of the bus drivers would take off with out the blacks after they had paid their money at the front of the bus as they were trying to get on the back of the bus. One day, when Rosa was riding the bus, she recognized the bus driver, his name was James F. Blake, he was one of the bus drivers who had the practice of driving off without the blacks. Rosa got on the bus and sat down. Later, a white person got on the bus and needed a seat. Blake asked four black people to get up for the one white person all of the blacks refused at first. Blake asked again and said they would be arrested if they did not move. The other black people got up but Rosa refused. Rosa Parks was arrested and had a trial. The African-Americans in Montgomery protested Rosas arrest and a boycott was held against the Montgomery, Alabama buses.
After Rosas trial upon the advice of her attorneys, Rosa deiced not to pay the fourteen dollars fine or the court cost(Reference Library of Black America). The case was appealed all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. On December 20, 1956 the court ruled Montgomerys segregated seating was unconstitutional(reference Library of Black America). After the trial because of the boycott, Rosa and Raymond both lost their jobs.
In 1965, Rosa became an assistant Representitive. for John Conyers Jr. of Michigan. In 1987, Rosa established the Institute for Self Development for young people. Rosa continued to be active and involved in the civil rights struggle, giving speeches and attending marches.
Rosa worked voluntarily, she worked for free and all she wanted in return was freedom. Rosa Parks had a major impact on the civil rights movement. She has been called The Patron Saint, and "The Spark that lit the fire," and the mother of the movement. She will be remembered for the change of the nation for the freedom of the African Americans.
1. Kranuz, Rachel C. "Rosa Parks." Black Americans. New York: Factson File, 1992. 114.
2. "Rosa Parks." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2 ed. Vol. 12. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 115-116.
3. "Rosa Parks." Encyclopedia Americana. Vol. 21. Danbury, Con: Grolier Inc, 1996. 464.
4. Smith, Jessie Carnery, and Joseph M. Palmisano. "Rosa Parks." Reference Library of Black Americans. Vol. 2. Farnington Hills, MI: Gale Publishing Company, 2000. 364-365.